There are 20 medicines that are or have been sought by US states for use in lethal injection executions. These medicines are made by healthcare companies who develop and make medicines to save and improve the lives and health of patients. The companies do not approve of the misuse of medicines in lethal injections (see Industry Position) and have put distribution controls in place to protect their medicines and ensure they are sold exclusively for legitimate medical use.

Every FDA-approved manufacturer of listed execution drugs has strict controls in place to prevent Departments of Corrections from diverting their products for misuse in lethal injection executions.

Below is a summary of the medicines which are or have been listed in US state lethal injection protocols, or have been mooted by US states for use in executions, as well as their manufacturers, and the controls that are in place to protect these medicines from misuse.

At-Risk Drugs

Manufacturers

For legitimate medical use only

(control systems implemented)

Amobarbital

Valeant Pharmaceuticals

Cisatracurium Besylate

AbbVie Inc.

Fresenius Kabi AG

Manufactured by Gland Pharma Ltd. for Sandoz Inc.

Diazepam

Pfizer Inc.

Etomidate

American Regent, Inc.

Manufactured by Gland Pharma Ltd. for Athenex Inc.

AuroMedics Pharma Inc.

Gland Pharma Ltd.

Heritage Pharma Inc.

Hikma Pharmaceuticals LLC.

Mylan Laboratories Inc.

Pfizer Inc.

Zydus USA

Fentanyl

Akorn Inc.

Hikma Pharmaceuticals LLC.

Pfizer Inc.

Hydromorphone

Akorn Inc.

Fresenius Kabi AG

Hikma Pharmaceuticals LLC.

Pfizer Inc.

Manufactured by Barr Pharma for Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Inc.

Methohexital Sodium

Par Pharmaceutical Inc.

Midazolam

Akorn Inc.

Manufactured by Gland Pharma Ltd. for Alvogen Inc.

Manufactured by Gland Pharma Ltd. for Athenex Inc.

Manufactured by Fresenius Kabi AG for BD Medical & APP Pharma Inc.

Gland Pharma Ltd

Manufactured by Gland Pharma Ltd. for Heritage Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Hikma Pharmaceuticals LLC.

Mylan Laboratories Inc.

Pfizer Inc.

Mivacurium Chloride

Manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline Plc for AbbVie Inc.

Pancuronium Bromide

Pfizer Inc.

Pentobarbital Sodium

Manufactured by Akorn Inc. for Oak Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Sagent Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Leucadia Pharmaceuticals

Phenobarbital

Hikma Pharmaceuticals LLC.

Potassium Acetate

Exela Pharma Sciences LLC.

Pfizer Inc.

Potassium Chloride

Baxter Healthcare Ltd.

B Braun Medical Inc.

Manufactured by Fresenius Kabi AG for APP Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Pfizer Inc.

Propofol

Manufactured by Corden Pharma GmbH for Fresenius Kabi AG.

Pfizer Inc.

Sagent Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Manufactured by Corden Pharma GmbH for Teva Pharma Industries Inc.

Rocuronium Bromide

Manufactured by Aurobindo Pharma Ltd. for AuroMedics Pharma LLC

Fresenius AG

Manufactured by Gland Pharma Ltd. for Mylan Laboratories Inc.

Pfizer Inc.

Sandoz Inc.

Sagent Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Manufactured by Tamarang for X-Gen Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Secobarbital Sodium

Valeant Pharmaceuticals

Vecuronium Bromide

Manufactured by Gland Pharma Ltd. for Fresenius Kabi AG

Gland Pharma Ltd.

Pfizer Inc.

Mylan Laboratories Inc.

Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.

Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Inc.

Sodium Thiopental

Drug not federally approved and unavailable for purchase in the US.

UNAPPROVED DRUG